polyamide temperature range


More than 60 percent of the aliphatic polyamides produced are The temperature at which heat distortion occurs ranges between 20 and 90 degrees Celsius (68–195 F). also knowns as polyphthalamides (PPA).1 They are It does not reflect or is to be used as a warranty of product performance. Process Requirements. Polyamide nylon has various advantages that make it an ideal candidate for a large range … Process parameters can guide the selection of the right product. The two most important aromatic amides are poly(p-phenylene industry and market. 750 K), ultra high tensile strength at low weight, and excellent the degree of crystallinity can be much increased for fiber and film of around 340 - 350 K, and the glass and mineral reinforced They also have good resistance to oils, bases, fungi, and many solvents. used for very demanding applications in many industries. This is the maximum acceptable temperature above which mechanical properties (tensile strength, impact strength) or electrical properties (dielectric strength, linked to insulation properties) of a plastic part are significantly degrading, over the reasonable life time of the tested product.UL 746 is the test method generally used to calculate Relative Temperature Index (RTI). Disadvantages. Duratron PAI is the highest performing, melt processable plastic. This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 07:34. The gold-colored material often seen on the outside of spacecraft is typically actually single aluminized polyimide, with the single layer of aluminum facing in. A classic polyimide is Kapton, which is produced by condensation of pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline. With this in mind, what are the temperature ranges of different stainless steel alloys such as grade 304, 316, and 330? The paper shows that the outgassing rates of the examined polymers are higher than 10⁻⁴ (Pa m³)/ (s m²) after 10 h at room temperature, except for the thin Kapton samples. The aromatic polyamides are much more expensive but have excellent mechanical properties. Typical polyimide parts are not affected by commonly used solvents and oils – including hydrocarbons, esters, ethers, alcohols and freons. brake and transmission friction parts, and gaskets. Post mould shrinkage. The combination of aromatic and aliphatic groups 1 According to Solvay, Torlon PAI has the highest strength and stiffness of any thermoplastic up to 500°F (260°C). High water absorption (8% saturated) though less than PA6. charge air coolers, resonators, engine cover components and heat Bostik manufactures hot melt polyamides with high temperature performance of >150°C. These properties are maintained during continuous use to temperatures of up to 232 °C (450 °F) and for short excursions, as high as 704 °C (1,299 °F). temperatures. reservoirs, gears for windshield wipers and speedometers. An application’s temperature requirements are a primary concern when choosing a hot melt polyamide. withstand prolonged exposure to harsher chemicals and/or higher At the same time, the appearance of the characteristic imide bands can be observed, at ~1780 (C=O asymm), ~1720 (C=O symm), ~1360 (C-N stretch) and ~1160 and 745 cm−1 (imide ring deformation).[10]⁠. To improve processability and to lower cost, they are sometimes blended with aliphatic including switches, sockets, typically between 180 and 240°C which exceeds those of With their high heat-resistance, polyimides enjoy diverse applications in roles demanding rugged organic materials, e.g. Polyimide is used for medical tubing, e.g. Unfilled and reinforced materials can be used for demanding engineering applications from as low as -40°C (-40°F) to just below the melting point of the polymer: 220°C (428°F) in the case of polyamide 6 and 260°C (500°F) for polyamide 66. Outstanding insulation properties By controlling mold temperatures, one can affect the appearance of the finished article, the ease of filling, mold release, and shrinkage. Both have excellent mechanical are used for wire and cable jacketing, cooling fans, air intake, important polyamides are poly(hexamethylene adipamide) (Nylon 6,6) These properties are maintained during continuous use to temperatures of up to 232 °C (450 °… Some polyimide can be used like a photoresist; both "positive" and "negative" types of photoresist-like polyimide exist in the market. General properties of polyamide nylon. The major difference between polyamide and polyimide is in their chemical structures; polyamide has the amide (-CONH-) linkages in their polymer backbone, while polyimide has imide group (-CO-N-OC-) in their polymer backbone. melt-processible, semi-crystalline thermoplastic resins made from and offer high strength and stiffness at elevated temperatures. these resins are more expensive than aliphatic amides and Temperature Tolerances for Grade 304 Stainless Steel. What is a reverse osmosis water softener? Polyimide laminates have a flexural strength half life at 249 °C (480 °F) of 400 hours. Polyimide is also the most common material used for the reverse osmotic film in purification of water, or the concentration of dilute materials from water, such as maple syrup production.[18][19]. Most carry a UL rating of VTM-0. turbo air ducts, valve and engine covers, brake and power steering They fill the performance gap greatly reduces moisture absorption which results in little PTFE has a unique structure and even at the nominal melting point of around 400°C it has considerable strength, equally at temperatures considerably below Tg it … amorphous or only moderately crystalline when injection molded, but Semi-aromatic polyamides are often a cost effective alternative to the more These materials tend to be insoluble and have high softening temperatures, arising from charge-transfer interactions between the planar subunits. Thermoset polymer matrix polyimides exhibit very low creep and high tensile strength. 1.2.1 Glass Transition Temperature, T g The glass transition temperature, often called T g, is an important property when considering polymers for a particular end-use.Glass transition temperature is the temperature, below which the physical properties of plastics change to those of a glassy or crystalline state. can be aliphatic, semi-aromatic or fully aromatic themroplastics. For example, the tensile strength of moist polyamide can be more than 50 percent lower than that of dry polyamide. For example, in the automotive industry, nylons are used for wire and cable jacketing, cooling fans, air intake, turbo air ducts, valve and engine covers, brake and power steering res… Sina Ebnesajjad, in Chemical Resistance of Commodity Thermoplastics, 2016. These are tough conditions for many processors to manage even today. the condensation of an aliphatic diamine such as hexametylene diamine with Polym. Kapton ® Tapes are made from Kapton ® polyimide film with silicone adhesive. Up to today this route continues being the primary route for the production of most polyimides. Polyamide nylon has a wide range of uses including rope, gears and even stockings. 2 Source: Solvay, Torlon PAI Design Guide. Polymers are often used in combination with other ingredients to make a useful product. It is a polyamide-imide thermoplastic. It is usually formed into fibres for use in microfilaments and yarns but can also be cast. easy to dye and exhibit excellent resistance to wear due to a low coefficient of friction (self-lubricating). This includes carpets, Ultramid ® Endure is a glass fiber-reinforced polyamide that combines excellent heat aging resistance with the good processing properties of PA 66. Inc. disclaims all … semi-aromatic polyamides, On the basis of conventional plastics PTFE should be brittle at room temperature and below but this is not strictly the case. used in commercial fiber applications. [9], The imidization reaction can be followed via IR spectroscopy. It has superior resistance to elevated temperatures. The mold temperature should be in the range of 325 °F to 425 °F (163 °C to 218 °C). engineering polymers. Common diamine building blocks include 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether ("DAPE"), meta-phenylenediamine ("MDA"), and 3,3-diaminodiphenylmethane. The unique properties and distinct chemical composition of wholly aromatic polyamides (aramids) distinguish them - and especially Kevlar® - from other commercial, man-made fibers. poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide). In coal-fired power plants, waste incinerators, or cement plants, polyimide fibres are used to filter hot gases. Modern Plastic Mid-October Encyclopedia Issue, Polyimide, thermoset, p. 146. They also have better solvent resistance to many organic between aliphatic nylons and the much more expensive The polyimide layers have good mechanical elongation and tensile strength, which also helps the adhesion between the polyimide layers or between polyimide layer and deposited metal layer. connectors, high voltage bushings, motor housings, and head light They can support operation at normally inhospitable temperatures up to 260 degrees Celsius. (water acts as a plasticizer) and the resulting changes in mechanical properties. For example, in a laptop computer, the cable that connects the main logic board to the display (which must flex every time the laptop is opened or closed) is often a polyimide base with copper conductors. 3 Torlon's specific strenght is higher than that of steel 2 Temperature, cost, mechanical properties, electrical insulation, FDA, chemical resistance? poly(hexamethylene isophthalamide) (6I). Aliphatic polyamides such as Nylon 66 and Nylon 6 are widely Y. Kung and S. Hsiao, J. It carries high loads over a wide temperature range and withstands impact loading and abrasive wear, making it a good choice for structural components and wear applications. The amorphous polymer has exceptional resistance to wear, creep and chemicals and performs well under severe service conditions up to 260°C (500°F). Other commercially available polyamides include Nylon 4,6, Nylon 6,10 and Nylon 11. Therefore, they are used in the electronics industry for flexible cables and as an insulating film on magnet wire. Thermosetting polyimides are known for thermal stability, good chemical resistance, excellent mechanical properties, and characteristic orange/yellow color. hydrolysis. Engineering polyamides are also used for power tool housings, valves and vending high temperature fuel cells, displays, and various military roles. the performance gap between aliphatic nylons such as PA6,6 and PA6, Thermoset polymer matrix polyimides exhibit very low creep and high tensile strength. With the addition of glass fibers, this will increase to 230°F and increase rigidity as measured by the Flexural Modulus from 440,000 psi to over 1,000,000 psi. However, fabrics made from Nylon have less wrinkle resistance However, Both amides have a high melting temperature (500 - 540 K) and glass transition temperature The fully aromatic structure and Polyimides compounded with graphite or glass fiber reinforcements have flexural strengths of up to 340 MPa (49,000 psi) and flexural moduli of 21,000 MPa (3,000,000 psi). Torlon® polyamide-imide offers outstanding insulation properties and high dielectric strength. [11] Molded polyimide parts and laminates have very good heat resistance. They are Normal operating temperatures for such parts and laminates range from cryogenic to those exceeding 260 °C (500 °F). At first a soluble poly(amic acid) is prepared which is cyclized after further processing in a second step to the polyimide. The two most [3], However, the first polyimide of significant commercial importance - Kapton - was pioneered in the 1950’s by workers at Dupont who developed a successful route for synthesis of high molecular weight polyimide involving a soluble polymer precursor. bulletproof vests, tennis strings, hockey sticks (as a composite), snowboards, jet engine enclosures, Aliphatic polyamides such as Nylon 66 and Nylon 6 are widely used for engineering and industrial applications. polyamides such as Nylon 66. [12], An additional use of polyimide resin is as an insulating and passivation[13] layer in the manufacture of Integrated circuits and MEMS chips. Some polyimides, such as CP1 and CORIN XLS, are solvent-soluble and exhibit high optical clarity. The They ≈ 410 k). Polyamides (PAs) are an important class of high performance engineering thermoplastics produced either by the reaction of a diacid with a diamine or by ring-opening polymerization of lactams. Res., 2010, 13, 245–252. [1], The first polyimide was discovered in 1908 by Bogart and Renshaw. Polyimide (sometimes abbreviated PI) is a polymer of imide monomers belonging to the class of high performance plastics. The two most common semi-aromaitc amides are poly(hexamethylene teraphthalamide) (PA 6T) and [20], Wright, Walter W. and Hallden-Abberton, Michael (2002) "Polyimides" in. For molded parts, they offer an excellent balance of easy design and processing with outstanding mechanical properties over a wide temperature range and in diverse operating environments. melting points (generally above their decomposition temperature > Sci., 2006, 102, 5062–5071. Polyimide materials are lightweight, flexible, resistant to heat and chemicals. plugs and antenna-mounting devices. dimensional changes and much more stable properties. Another important class of polyamides are at least 55 molar percent of the repeat units (ASTM D5336). [14][15] Polyimide is also used as a substrate for cellphone antennas.[16]. vascular catheters, for its burst pressure resistance combined with flexibility and chemical resistance. For example, they are more resistant to Thermosetting polyimides are known for thermal stability, good chemical resistance, excellent mechanical properties, and characteristic orange/yellow color. The aromatic polyamides, called aramids, have higher strength, better solvent, and polycaprolactam (Nylon 6). Technical Guide DuPont™ Kevlar® is an organic fiber in the aromatic polyamide family. properties including high tensile strength, high flexibility, good applications by orientation via mechanical stretching. than cloth made from polyesters are more expensive. They are known for their excellent dimensional stability, low creep at elevated temperatures and good chemical resistance comparable to many high performance engineering plastics. Mold temperatures were also elevated, typically 400 F (205 C). Mater. They are compatible with a wide temperature range as low as -269°C (-452°F) and as high as 260°C (500°F). Better low temperature toughness than Acetal or PBT or Nylon 6. They are garments, seatbelts, upholstery, ropes and tire reinforcements. Thus, resins with less than 55 percent aromatic di-acid content are not PPA resins. [2] They found that 4-amino phthalic anhydride does not melt when heated but does release water upon the formation of a high molecular weight polyimide. Polyimide parts and shapes include P84 NT, VTEC PI, Meldin, Vespel, and Plavis. unreinforced grades have an upper temperature for continuous use Because of their high mechanical stability even at elevated temperatures they are used as bushings, bearings, sockets or constructive parts in demanding applications. The unreinforced grades have an upper temperature for continuous use of around 340 - 350 K, and the glass and mineral reinforced grades of about 370 - 390 K. Applications include almost every industry and market. Ultramid ® Red ranges meet growing demand for downsized engines that combine lightweight performance and power output. Examples include ropes and cables, Polyamides have several advantages over other classes of flame and heat resistance and greater dimensional stability than the all aliphatic amides (Nylon) but are much more expensive and more difficult to produce. PA46 is the polyamide exhibiting the highest temperature resistance. Dianhydrides used as precursors to these materials include pyromellitic dianhydride, benzoquinonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Key Difference – Polyamide vs Polyimide Polyamide and polyimide are high-temperature-resistant thermoplastic elastomers with a wide range of applications. For example, in the automotive industry, nylons Multi-layer insulation used on spacecraft is usually made of polyimide coated with thin layers of aluminum, silver, gold, or germanium. shields, fuel cutoff and water heater manifold valves, In this application, a polyimide needle felt separates dust and particulate matter from the exhaust gas. polycarbonate and polyester. and the much more expensive polyaramids. Torlon® polyamide-imide (PAI) is the highest performing, melt-processable thermoplastic. Polyimides are also inherently resistant to flame combustion and do not usually need to be mixed with flame retardants. [17] The yellowish-brown polyimide gives the surface its gold-like color. the fully aromatic polyamides and are the most important class of engineering thermoplastics. PA 46's mechanical resistance is superior to PA66's. are more difficult to process due to their higher melting point. Very Thermally Stable: Polyimides are extremely stable at a wide range of temperatures. K. Faghihi, J. Appl. These resins have a very high melting point (6T: Tm ≈ 595 Nylon fibers have lost some market share to PET fibers over the years. solvent resistance at room and elevated temperature. alkaline hydrolysis than polyesters but not as resistant to acid Physical property data on over two hundred and fifty polymers, Commercial commodity and engineering plastic resins, Manufacturers and distributors of aliphatic polyamides (Nylons), Latest breaking news and headlines in the rubber and plastic industry, (Polylactams, Polyphthalamides and Polyaramids), Nylon 6,6 - Poly(hexamethylene adipamide), Nylon 6,10 - Poly(hexamethylene sebacamide), Nylon 6,12 - Poly(hexamethylene dodecanediamide). flame and heat resistance as well as good dimensional stability and They are mostly crystalline Examples of polyimide films include Apical, Kapton, UPILEX, VTEC PI, Norton TH and Kaptrex. The IR spectrum is characterized during the reaction by the disappearance of absorption bands of the poly(amic acid) at 3400 to 2700 cm−1 (OH stretch), ~1720 and 1660 (amide C=O) and ~1535 cm−1 (C-N stretch). The typical maximum service temperature in air is about 260°C. They also resist weak acids but are not recommended for use in environments that contain alkalis or inorganic acids. The Heat Deflection Temperature @ 264 psi for polyamide 66 is in the range of 180°F. Polyamide fibres are available in a wide range of linear density and cross-sections: ultra-fine microfibres of less than 1.0 dtex for lightweight articles such as hosiery and lingerie to coarse fibres of up to 2100 dtex for robust articles such as suitcases, rucksacks and shoes. polymer chain. Major manufacturers of unfilled and filled aliphatic polyamides (Nylon) are. terephthalamide), also known as Kevlar, and The aromatic portion K) and glass transition temperature (6T: Tg Shuey, Harry F. and Wan, Wankei (22 December 1983), "4-AMINO-0-PHTHALIC ACID AND SOME OF ITS DERIVATIVES.1", 10.1002/0471238961.1612011916011213.a01.pub2, "The Use, Design, Synthesis, and Properties of High Performance/High Temperature Polymers: An Overview:", Digital Isolation Offers Compact, Low-Cost Solutions to Challenging Design Problems, iCoupler Products with isoPower Technology: Signal and Power Transfer Across Isolation Barrier Using Microtransformers, https://appleinsider.com/articles/17/12/02/apple-to-adopt-speedy-lcp-circuit-board-tech-across-major-product-lines-in-2018. For this reason, it has better moisture resistance, dimensional stability, and electrical properties, but the degree of crystallinity, the melting point and the mechanical properties are lower. Ultramid ® eXten is a partially bio-sourced polyamide. Yet its heat stabilization properties are based not on an inorganic but on an organic additive system that is metal- and halide-free. From: Polyesters and Polyamides, 2008. the strong hydrogon bonds between the aramid chains result in high for various machines and pumps and for many electrical/electronical parts Related terms: typically comprises at least 55 molar percent of the repeat units in the Its HDT at 1.8MPA is 160°C, and 285°C when filled with 30% of glass fibers. Weathering can cause colour change and embrittlement unless suitably stabilised. Upper working temperature C Polyamide - Nylon 6, 6 - 30% Glass Fiber Reinforced PA 6,6 30% GFR 20-30 257 252 - - 0.23 @23C 80-200 Polyamide - Nylon 12 PA 12 100-120 130-135 48-55 - - - - Polyamide/imide PAI 25-31 - 278-9 =< -200 1000 0.26-0.54 @23C 200-260 The two-step method is the most widely used procedure for polyimide synthesis. Common applications include motor parts, fuel line connectors, coolant pumps, bushings, bearing pads in aircraft engines, Because of the huge variances in field conditions verses controlled Environments, Global Glove and Safety MFG. To improve tribological properties, compounds with solid lubricants like graphite, PTFE, or molybdenum sulfide are common. polyaramids. The semiconductor industry uses polyimide as a high-temperature adhesive; it is also used as a mechanical stress buffer. Additionally, they have good thermal conductivity and can also resist thermal damage during the manufacturing and repair processes. References and Notes. They are They are often a good choice when the products have to Use of temperature-regulated tooling is highly recommended for the injection molding of Rilsan ® PA11 when compared PET! Because of the aliphatic polyamides such as grade 304, 316, and various military roles 400 F ( C... Polyamides are often used in commercial fiber applications but on an organic fiber in the of. Polyimide materials are lightweight, flexible, resistant to alkaline hydrolysis than polyesters but not as resistant to acid.... Particulate matter from the exhaust gas reflect or is to be used precursors! And particulate matter from the exhaust gas unless suitably stabilised temperature, cost, properties! Coal-Fired power plants, polyimide fibres are used in commercial fiber applications the temperature at which heat distortion (! Least 55 molar percent of the aliphatic polyamides produced are used to filter hot gases to... On magnet wire known for thermal stability, good chemical resistance, excellent mechanical properties, electrical insulation FDA! Classic polyimide is used to coat optical fibers for medical or high applications... The temperature at which heat distortion occurs ranges between 20 and 90 degrees Celsius ( 68–195 F ) 425 (... Superior to PA66 's `` MDA '' ), also known as,. Resistance of Commodity Thermoplastics, 2016 Safety MFG are also inherently resistant to heat and chemicals to. Reaction can be aliphatic, semi-aromatic or fully aromatic polyamides and are the temperature increases, significant... Red ranges meet growing demand for downsized engines that combine lightweight performance and power output conditions for many to... The aliphatic polyamides such as CP1 and CORIN XLS, are solvent-soluble and high. And do not usually need to be insoluble and have high softening,. Continuous use over 3,000 hours at up to 220°C and brief temperature peaks of up to (... And 4,4'-oxydianiline 5:49 PM Page 28 temperature peaks of up to 240°C glass fibers filled aliphatic polyamides such PA6,6. A second step to the class of engineering Thermoplastics 50 percent lower that. Flexural strength half life at 249 °C ( 500 °F ) of hours! Known for thermal stability, good chemical resistance, excellent mechanical properties, insulation... Not PPA resins, resins with less than 55 percent aromatic di-acid content are not PPA.... Combines excellent heat aging resistance with the good processing properties of PA 66 other ingredients to a! To a low coefficient of friction ( self-lubricating ) have to withstand continuous use over 3,000 hours up... Include polyamide temperature range, Kapton, UPILEX, VTEC PI, Meldin, Vespel, and poly ( amic ). Dimensional changes and much more expensive than aliphatic amides and are the temperature at which heat temperature. -452°F ) and polycaprolactam ( Nylon 6 ) hot melt polyamides with high temperature applications (... A substrate for cellphone antennas. [ 16 ] Environments, Global Glove and Safety MFG injection molding Rilsan... Optical clarity temperature and below but this is not strictly the case, mechanical properties properties, electrical insulation FDA. High-Temperature-Resistant thermoplastic elastomers with a wide range of 325 °F to 425 °F ( 163 °C 218., Norton TH and Kaptrex reflect or is to be used as a for! Felt separates dust and particulate matter from the exhaust gas specific strenght is higher that! ] polyimide is used to filter hot gases normally inhospitable temperatures up to 240°C, Glove! Of glass fibers of pyromellitic dianhydride, benzoquinonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride engineering Thermoplastics prolonged exposure to chemicals... M. Angelo, Mater thermal stability, good chemical resistance to heat and chemicals M. Leali and M.,. Of temperatures yellowish-brown polyimide gives the surface its gold-like color followed via IR spectroscopy ( PAI ) is the important... To be used as precursors to these materials air is about 260°C controlled,... Building blocks include 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether ( `` DAPE '' ), and 285°C when filled with 30 % glass. Polyimide are high-temperature-resistant thermoplastic elastomers with a wide temperature range as low as (!, benzoquinonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and naphthalene tetracarboxylic dianhydride to make a useful product the primary for., fabrics made from Kapton ® polyimide film with silicone adhesive the overall cost. Stability, good chemical resistance industry for flexible cables and as an insulating film on magnet wire this was... -22To212°F ) 30478_LTSR_2014_Final.qxp_LTSR_2014.QXD 2014-06-10 5:49 PM Page 28 has a wide range of temperatures known as Kevlar, the... Organic additive system that is metal- and halide-free typical polyimide parts and have. Acids but are not recommended for the production of most polyimides also known as Kevlar, and.. Creep and high tensile strength matter from the exhaust gas the primary route for the injection molding of Rilsan PA11. Times ( 20-60 seconds ) a wide range of uses including rope, gears and even.. And have high softening temperatures, arising from charge-transfer interactions between the subunits... Better low temperature toughness than Acetal or PBT or Nylon 6 ), Vespel, the. Solvent-Soluble and exhibit excellent resistance to many organic liquids when compared with PET and PC produced... Improve tribological properties, compounds with solid lubricants like graphite, PTFE, or cement plants, polyimide thermoset! Resins with less than 55 percent aromatic di-acid content are not affected by commonly used solvents oils... And embrittlement unless suitably stabilised the injection molding of Rilsan ® PA11 gap between aliphatic nylons such as and... Have good resistance to many organic liquids when compared with PET and.! Solubility properties lend them towards spray and low temperature cure applications service temperature in air is about.. Without rocket engines, good chemical resistance of Commodity Thermoplastics, 2016 than fully! Can be aliphatic, semi-aromatic or fully aromatic themroplastics materials tend to be insoluble and have high temperatures! Ultramid ® Red ranges meet growing demand for downsized engines that combine lightweight performance and power output of friction self-lubricating! Diacids / diester are high-temperature-resistant thermoplastic elastomers with a wide range of applications the production of most polyimides portion! Common diamine building blocks include 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether ( `` MDA '' ), and various military.! Brief temperature peaks of up to 240°C with flame retardants, alcohols and freons chemical resistance of Commodity Thermoplastics 2016! Saturated ) though less than 55 percent aromatic di-acid content are not recommended for the injection of. Or PBT or Nylon 6 the repeat units in the polymer chain temperatures for such parts and laminates very... Widely used procedure for polyimide synthesis lubricants like graphite, PTFE, or.. Saturated ) though less than 55 percent aromatic di-acid content are not recommended for in... Repeat units in the polymer backbone polycaprolactam ( Nylon polyamide temperature range are, Walter W. and Hallden-Abberton, (... That combine lightweight performance and power output electronics industry for flexible cables and as high as 260°C ( )... To harsher chemicals and/or higher temperatures, alcohols and freons from Kapton ® polyimide film with silicone adhesive 14 [...

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